ORCID # 0000-0002-0719-5248

Stanek, G., Flamm, H., Barbour, A.G., and Burgdorfer, W. (1987) Lyme Borreliosis. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart (ISBN 3-437-11061-6)

Stanek, G., Kristoferitsch, W., Pletschette, M., Barbour, A.G., and Flamm H. (1989) Lyme Borreliosis II. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart (ISBN 3-437-11283-X)

Barbour, A.G. (1996) Lyme Disease: The Cause, The Cure, The Controversy. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London (ISBN 0-8018-5224-2)

Barbour, A.G. (2015) Lyme Disease: Why It’s Spreading, How It Makes You Sick, and What To Do About It. Johns Hopkins University Press (ISBN 978-1-4214-1720-2 hardcover; -1721-9 paperback)


Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals:

1. Barbour A.G., Nichols C.R. and Fukushima T. (1976) An outbreak of giardiasis in a group of campers. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25:384-389.

2. Rees H.B., Smith M.A., Spendlove J.C., Fraser R.S., Fukushima T., Barbour A.G. and Schoenfeld F.J. (1977) Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of bovine anthrax in two Utah counties in 1975. Public Health Rep. 92:176-186.

3. Barbour A.G., Everett, J.R., Andersen, F.L., Nichols, C.R., Fukushima, T. and Kagan, I.G. (1978) Hydatid disease screening: Sanpete County, Utah. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:94-100.

4. Barbour, A.G., Krueger, G.G., Feorino, P.M. and Smith, C.B. (1979) Kawasaki-like disease in a young adult: association with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. JAMA 241:397-398.

5. Baker, E.L., Landrigan, P.J., Barbour, A.G., Cox, D.H., Folland, D.S., Ligo, R.N. and Throckmorton, J. (1979) Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels. Br. J. Indust. Med. 36:314-322.

6. Barbour, A.G., Allred, C.D., Solberg, C.O., and Hill, H.R. (1980) Chemiluminescence by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with active bacterial infection. J. Infect. Dis. 141:14-26.

7. Craythorn, J.M., Barbour, A.G., Garibaldi, R.A., Britt, M.R., and Matsen, J.M. (1980) The membrane filter contact technique for bacteriological surface sampling. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12:250-255.

8. Barbour, A.G., Mayer, L.W., and Spratt, B.G. (1981) Mecillinam resistance in Escherichia coli: dissociation of growth inhibition and morphologic change. J. Infect. Dis. 143:114-121.

9. Barbour, A.G. (1981) Properties of penicillin-binding proteins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 19:316-322.

10. Barbour, A.G. (1981) Vaginal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome. Infect. Immun. 33:442-449.

11. Kehrberg, M.W., Latham, R.H., Haslam, B.T., Hightower, A., Tanner, M., Jacobson, J.A., Barbour, A.G., Noble, V., and Smith, C.B. (1981) Risk factors for staphylococcal toxic-shock syndrome. Am. J. Epidemiol. 114:873-879.

12. Barbour, A.G., Todd, W.J., and Stoenner, H.G. (1982) Action of penicillin on Borrelia hermsii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 21:823-829.

13. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., Benach, J.L., Grunwaldt, E., and Davis, J.P. (1982) Lyme Disease – a tick-borne spirochetosis? Science 216:1317-1319.

14. Barbour, A.G., Amano, K.-I., Hackstadt, T., Perry, L., and Caldwell, H.D. (1982) Chlamydia trachomatis has penicillin-binding proteins but not detectable muramic acid. J. Bacteriol. 151:420-428.

15. Barbour, A.G., Tessier, S.L., and, Stoenner, H.G. (1982) Variable major proteins of Borrelia hermsii. J. Exp. Med. 156:1312-1324.

16. Barbour, A.G., Burgdorfer, W., Hayes, S.F., Peter, O., and Aeschlimann, A. (1983) Isolation of a cultivable spirochete from Ixodes ricinus ticks of Switzerland. Curr. Microbiol. 8:123-126.

17. Steere, A.C., Grodzicki, R.L., Kornblatt, A.N., Craft, J.E., Barbour, A.G., Burgdorfer, W., Schmid, G.P., Johnson, E., and Malawista, S.E.. (1983) Spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. New Engl. J. Med. 308:733-740.

18. Benach, J.L., Bosler, E.M., Hanrahan, J.P., Coleman, J.L., Habicht, G.S., Bast, T.F., Cameron, D.J., Ziegler, J.L., Barbour, A.G., Burgdorfer, W., Edelman, R., and Kaslow, R.A. (1983) Spirochetes isolated from the blood of two patients with Lyme disease. New Engl. J. Med. 308:740-742.

19. Bosler, E.M., Coleman, J.L., Benach, J., Massey, D.A., Hanrahan, J.P., Burgdorfer, W., and Barbour, A.G. (1983) Natural distribution of the Ixodes dammini spirochete. Science 220:321-322.

20. Hayes, S.F., Burgdorfer, W., and Barbour, A.G. (1983) Bacteriophage in the Ixodes dammini spirochete, etiological agent of Lyme disease. J. Bacteriol. 154:1436-1439.

21. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., Peter, O., and Aeschlimann, A. (1983) Erythema chronicum migrans – a tickborne spirochetosis. Acta Trop. 40:79-83.

22. Barbour, A.G., Tessier, S.L., and Todd, W.J. (1983) Lyme disease spirochetes and ixodid tick spirochetes share a common surface antigenic determinant defined by a monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 41:795-804.

23. Anderson, J.F., Magnarelli, L.A., Burgdorfer,W., and Barbour, A.G. (1983) Spirochetes in Ixodes dammini and mammals from Connecticut. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:818-824.

24. Barbour, A.G., Burgdorfer, W., Grunwaldt, E., and Steere, A.C. (1983) Antibodies of patients with Lyme disease to components of the Ixodes dammini spirochete. J. Clin. Invest. 72:504-515.

25. Barbour, A.G., Barrera, O., and Judd, R.C. (1983) Structural analysis of the variable major proteins of Borrelia hermsii. J. Exp. Med. 158:2127-2140.

26. Barbour, A.G., Tessier, S.L., and Hayes, S.F. (1984) Variation in a major surface protein of Lyme disease spirochetes. Infect. Immun. 45:94-100.

27. Schmid, G.P., Steigerwalt, A.G., Johnson, S.E., Barbour, A.G., Steere, A.C., Robinson, I.M., and Brenner, D.J. (1984) DNA characterization of the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:155-158.

28. Barbour, A.G. (1984) Isolation and cultivation of Lyme disease spirochetes. Yale J. Biol. Med. 57:521-5.

29. Barbour, A.G. (1984) Immunochemical analysis of Lyme disease spirochetes. Yale J. Biol. Med. 57:581-586.

30. Howe, T., Mayer, L.W., and Barbour, A.G. (1985) A single recombinant expressing two major surface antigens of the Lyme disease spirochete. Science 227:645-646.

31. Barstad, P.A., Coligan, J.E., Raum, M.G., and Barbour, A.G. (1985) Variable major proteins of Borrelia hermsii: epitope mapping and partial sequence analysis of CNBr peptides. J. Exp. Med. 161:1302-1314.

32. Meier, J.T., Simon, M.I., and Barbour, A.G. (1985) Antigenic variation is associated with DNA rearrangements in a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. Cell 41:403-409.

33. Barbour, A.G., Heiland, R., and T.R. Howe. (1985) Heterogeneity of major proteins in Lyme disease borreliae: a molecular analysis of North American and European isolates. J. Inf. Dis. 152:478-484.

34. Burgdorfer, W., Lane, R.S., Barbour, A.G., Gresbrink, R.A., and Anderson, J.R. (1985) The western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus: a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34:925-930.

35. Lane, R.S., Burgdorfer, W., Hayes, S.F., and Barbour, A.G. (1985) Isolation of a spirochete from the soft tick Ornithodoros coriaceus: a possible agent of epizootic bovine abortion. Science 230:85-87.

36. Plasterk, R.H.A., Simon, M.I., and Barbour, A.G. (1985) Transposition of structural genes to an expression sequence on a linear plasmid causes antigenic variation in Borrelia hermsii. Nature 318:257-263.

37. Berger, B.W., Kaplan, M.H., Rothenberg, I.R., and Barbour, A.G. (1985) Isolation and characterization of Lyme disease spirochetes from the skin of patients with erythema chronicum migrans. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 13:444-449.

38. Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., Heiland, R.A., Schrumpf, M.E., and S.L. Tessier. (1986) A Borrelia genus-specific monoclonal antibody binds to a flagellar epitope. Infect. Immun. 52:549-554.

39. Magnarelli, L.A., Anderson, J.F. and Barbour, A.G. (1986) The etiologic agent of Lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes. J. Infect. Dis. 154:355-358.

40. Howe, T.R., Laquier, F.W., and Barbour, A.G. (1986) Organization of genes encoding two outer membrane proteins of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi within a single transcriptional unit. Infect. Immun. 54:207- 212.

41. Park, H.K., Jones, B.E., and Barbour, A.G. (1986) Erythema chronicum migrans of Lyme disease: diagnosis by monoclonal antibodies. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 15:406-410.

42. Barbour, A.G., and Schrumpf, M.E. (1986) Polymorphisms of major surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. A, 263:83-91.

43. Weber, K., Schierz, G., Wilske, B., Neubert, U., Krampitz, H.E., Barbour, A.G., and Burgdorfer, W. (1986) Reinfection in erythema migrans disease. Infection 14:32-35.

44. Barbour, A.G., and Hayes, S.F. (1986) Biology of Borrelia species. Microbiol. Rev. 50:381-400.

45. Johnson, R.C., Burgdorfer, W., Lane, R.S., Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., and Hyde, F.W. (1987) Borrelia coriaceae sp. nov.: putative agent of epizootic bovine abortion. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 37: 72-74.

46. Barbour, A.G. (1987) Immunobiology of relapsing fever. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 8:125-137.

47. Barbour, A.G., and Garon, C.F. (1987) Linear plasmids of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi have covalently-closed ends. Science 237:409-411.

48. Takayama, K., Rothenberg, R.J., and Barbour, A.G. (1987) Absence of lipopolysaccharide in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect. Immun. 55:2311-2313.

49. Barbour, A.G. (1988) Plasmid analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme borreliosis agent. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:475-478.

50. Barbour, A.G., and Garon, C.F. (1988) The genes encoding major surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorderi are located on a plasmid. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 539:144-153.

51. Wilske, B., Preac-Mursic, V., Schierz, G., Kühbeck, R., Barbour, A.G., and Kramer, K. Antigenic variability of Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 539:126-142.

52. Schwan, T.G. and Barbour, A.G. (1988) Efficacy of nucleic acid hybridization probes for the detection and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 539:419-421.

53. Barbour, A.G. (1988) Laboratory aspects of Lyme disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1:399-414.

54. Magnarelli, L.A., Anderson, J.F., and Barbour, A.G. (1989) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Lyme disease: reactivity of subunits of Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Inf. Dis. 150:43-49.

55. Bergström, S., Bundoc, V.G., and Barbour, A.G. (1989) Molecular analysis of the major surface proteins, OspA and OspB, of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.Molec. Microbiol. 3:479-486.

56. Milch, L. and Barbour, A.G. (1989) Analysis of North American and European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi with antiserum to a recombinant antigen. J. Inf. Dis. 160:351-353.

57. Ferdows, M., and Barbour, A.G. (1989) Linear megabase-sized DNA in bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 86:5969-5973.

58. Bundoc, V. G., and Barbour, A.G. (1989) Clonal polymorphisms in the outer membrane protein OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect. Immun. 57:2733-2741.

59. Aberer, G., Brunner, C., Suchanek, G., Klade, H., Barbour, A.G., Stanek, G., and Lassmann, H. (1989) Molecular mimicry and Lyme borreliosis: a shared antigenic determinant between Borrelia burgdorferi and human tissue. Ann. Neurol., 26:732-737.

60. Restrepo, B.I., and Barbour, A.G. (1989) Cloning of 18S and 25S ribosomal DNA from the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 171:5596-5600.

61. Hinnebusch, J., Bergström, S., and Barbour, A.G. (1990) Cloning and sequence analysis of linear plasmid telomeres of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Molec. Microbiol. 4: 811-820.

62. Burman, N., Bergström, S., Restrepo, B.I., and Barbour, A.G. (1990) The variable antigens Vmp7 and Vmp21 of the relapsing fever bacterium Borrelia hermsii are structurally analogous to the VSG proteins of the African trypanosome. Molec. Microbiol. 4: 1715-1726.

63. Kitten, T., and Barbour, A.G. (1990) Juxtaposition of expressed variable antigen genes with a conserved telomere in the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87: 6077-6081.

64. Nielsen, S.L., Young, K.K.Y., and Barbour, A.G. (1990) Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. Molec. Cell. Probes 4: 73-79.

65. Barbour, A.G., Carter, C.J., Burman, N., Freitag, C.S., Garon, C.F., and Bergström, S. (1991) Tandem insertion sequence-like elements define the expression site for variable antigen genes of Borrelia hermsii. Infect. Immun. 59: 390-397.

66. Taylor, K.A., Barbour, A.G., and Thomas, D.D. (1991) Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of leptospiral DNA. Infect. Immun. 59: 323-329.

67. Barbour, A.G., Burman, N., Carter, C.J., Kitten, T., and Bergström. (1991) Variable antigen genes of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii are activated by promoter addition. Molec. Microbiol. 5: 489-493.

68. Dunn, J.J., Lade, B.N., and Barbour, A.G. (1990) Outer surface protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi: high level expression and purification of a soluble recombinant form of OspA. Prot. Exp. Purific. 1: 159-168.

69. Barbour, A.G. (1990) Antigenic variation of a relapsing fever Borrelia species. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 44: 155-171.

70. Sadziene, A., Thomas, D.D., Bundoc, V.G., Holt, S.C., and Barbour, A.G. (1991) A flagella-less mutant of Borrelia burgdorferi: structural, molecular, and in vitro functional characterization. J. Clin. Invest. 88: 82-92.

71. Hinnebusch, J. and Barbour, A.G. (1991) Linear plasmids of Borrelia burgdorferi have a telomeric structure and sequence similar to those of a eukaryotic virus. J. Bacteriol. 173: 7233-7239.

72. Bergström, S., Sjöstedt, Dotevall, L., Kaijser, B., Ekstrand-Hammarström, B., Wallberg, C., Skogman, G., and Barbour, A.G. (1991) Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis by an enzyme immunoassay detecting immunoglobulin G reactive to purified Borrelia burgdorferi cell components. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10: 422-427.

73. Schwan, T.G., Gage, K.L., Karstens, R.H., Schrumpf, M.E., Hayes, S.F., and Barbour, A.G. (1992) Identification of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia hermsii, with a species-specific monoclonal antibody. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 790-795.

74. Jonsson, M., Noppa, L., Barbour, A.G., and Bergström, S. (1992) Heterogeneity of outer membrane proteins in Borrelia burgdorferi: comparison of osp-operons of three isolates of different geographic locations. Infect. Immun. 60: 1845-1853.

75. Kitten, T. and Barbour, A.G. (1992) The relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii has multiple copies of its chromosome and linear plasmids. Genetics 132: 311-324.

76. Hinnebusch, J. and Barbour, A.G. (1992) Linear and circular plasmid copy number in Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Bacteriol. 174: 5251-5257.

77. Dever, L.L., Jorgensen, J.H., and Barbour, A.G. (1992) In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi: a microdilution MIC method and time-kill studies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:2692-2697.

78. Norris, S.J., Carter, C.J., Howell, J.K., and Barbour, A.G. (1992) Low passage-associated proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi: characterization and molecular cloning of OspD, a surface-exposed, plasmid-encoded lipoprotein. Infect. Immun. 60: 4662-4672.

79. Sadziene, A., Rosa, P., Thompson, P., Hogan, D., and Barbour, A.G. (1992) Antibody-resistant mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi: in vitro selection and characterization. J. Exp. Med. 176: 799-809.

80. Restrepo, B.I., Carter, C.J., Kitten, T., and Barbour, A.G. (1992) Subtelomeric expression regions of Borrelia hermsii linear plasmids are highly polymorphic. Mol. Microbiol 6:3299-3311.

81. Sadziene, A., Thompson, P., and Barbour, A.G. (1992) In vitro inhibition of Borrelia burgdorferi growth by antibodies. J. Infect. Dis. 167:165-172.

82. Erdile, L.F., Brandt, M-A, Warakomski, D.J., Westrack, G.J., Sadziene, A., Barbour, A.G., and Mays, J.P. (1992) The role of attached lipid in the immunogenicity of Borrelia burgdorferi OspA. Infect. Immun. 61:81-90.

83. Dever, L.L., Jorgensen, J.H., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) In vitro activity of vancomycin against the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1115-1121.

84. Sadziene, A., Wilske, B., Ferdows, M.S., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) The cryptic OspC gene of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 is located on a circular plasmid. Infect. Immun. 61:2192-5.

85. Cadavid, D., Bundoc, V.G., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) Experimental infection of the mouse brain by a relapsing fever Borrelia species: a molecular analysis. J. Infect. Dis. 168:143-51.

86. Kitten, T., Barrera, A.V., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) Intragenic recombination and a chimeric outer membrane protein in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. J. Bacteriol. 175:2516-2522.

87. Barbour, A.G. and D. Fish. (1993) The biological and social phenomenon of Lyme disease. Science 260:1610-6.

88. Stover, G.K., Bansal, G.P., Hanson, M.S., Burlein, J.E., Palaszynski, S.R., Young, J.F., Koenig, S., Young, D.B., Sadziene, A., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) Strategy to express chimeric lipoproteins on the surface of recombinant BCG: a candidate Lyme disease vaccine. J. Exp. Med. 178:197-209.

89. Sadziene, A., Barbour, A.G., Rosa, P.A., and Thomas, D.D. (1993) An OspB mutant of Borrelia burgdorferi has reduced invasiveness in vitro and reduced infectivity in vivo. Infect. Immun. 61:3590-6.

90. Dever, L.L., Jorgensen, J.H., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) Comparative in vitro activities of clarithromycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin against Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1704-6.

91. Motiejunas, L., Sadziene, A., Bunikis, J., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) Lyme borreliosis in Lithuania. Scand. J. Inf. Dis. 26:149-155..

92. Cadavid, D., Thomas, D.D., Crawley, R., and Barbour, A.G. (1994) Variability of a bacterial surface protein and disease expression in a mouse model of systemic Lyme borreliosis. J. Exp. Med. 179:631-42..

93. Thomas, D.D., Cadavid, D., and Barbour, A.G. (1994). Differential association of Borrelia spp. with cultured nerve cells. J. Inf. Dis. 169:445-8.

94. Sadziene, A., Jonsson, M., Bergström, S., Bright, R.K., Kennedy, R.C., and Barbour, A.G. (1994) A bactericidal antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi is directed against a variable region of the OspB protein. Infect. Immun. 62:2037-45.

95. Restrepo, B.I, Carter, C.J., and Barbour, A.G. (1994) Activation of a vmp pseudogene in Borrelia hermsii: an alternate mechanism of antigenic variation during relapsing fever. Mol. Microbiol. 13:287-299.

96. Carter, C.J., Bergström, S., Norris, S.J., and Barbour, A.G. (1994) A family of surface-exposed proteins of 20-kilodaltons in the genus Borrelia. Infect. Immun. 62:2792-2799.

97. Simpson, W.J., Cieplak, W., Schrumpf, M.E., Barbour, A.G., and Schwan, T.G. (1994) Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the gene in Borrelia burgdorferi encoding the immunogenic P39 antigen. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 119:381-388.

98. Barbour, A.G. (1994) Linear DNA of Borrelia spp. and antigenic variation. Trends Microbiol. 1:236-239.

99. Restrepo, B.I., and Barbour, A.G. (1994) Antigen diversity in the bacterium Borrelia hermsii through “somatic” mutations in rearranged vmp genes. Cell 78:867-876.

100. Noppa, L., Barbour, A.G., Sadziene, A., and Bergström, S. (1995) The expression of the flagellin gene in Borrelia is controlled by an alternate sigma factor. Microbiol. 141:85-93.

101. Sadziene, A., Thomas, D.D., and Barbour, A.G. (1995) An Osp-less mutant of Borreliaburgdorferi: biological and immunological characterization. Infect. Immun. 63:1573-1580.

102. Norris, S.J., Howell, J.K., Garza, S.A., Ferdows, M.S., and Barbour, A.G. (1995) High- and low-infectivity phenotypes of clonal populations of in vitro-cultivated Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect. Immun. 63:2206-2212.

103. Barbour, A.G., Maupin. G.O., Teltow, G.J., Carter, C.J., and Piesman, J. (1995) An uncultivable Borrelia sp. in the hard tick, Amblyomma americanum: a possible agent of a Lyme disease-like disease. J. Inf. Dis. 173:403-409.

104. Sadziene, A. and Barbour, A.G. (1995) Wahstumshemmung von Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato durch Antikorper. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 145:162-5.

105. Walker, D.H., Barbour, A.G., Oliver, J.H. et al. (1996) Emerging bacterial zoonotic and vector-borne diseases: ecologic and epidemiologic factors. JAMA 275:463-469/.

106. Ferdows, M.S., Serwer, P., and Barbour, A.G. (1996) Conversion of a linear to a circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. J. Bacteriol. 178:793-800.

107. Sadziene, A., Thompson, P.A., and Barbour, A.G. (1996) Antibody responses of rats and humans to flagella-less cells and the OspA protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 797:140-150.

108. Sadziene, A., Thompson, P.A., and Barbour, A.G. (1996) Flagella-less mutant of Borrelia burgdorferi as a live, attenuated vaccine in the mouse model of Lyme disease. J. Inf. Dis. 174:1184-1193.

109. Barbour, A.G. (1996) Does Lyme disease occur in the South?: a survey of emerging tick-borne infections in the region. Am. J. Med. Sci. 311:34-40.

110. Kazragis, R.J. Dever, L.L., Jorgensen, J.H., and Barbour, A.G. (1996) In vivo activities of vancomycin and ceftriaxone against Borrelia spp. in the mouse brain and other sites. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:2632-2636.

111. Barbour, A.G., Carter, C.J., Bundoc, V.G., and Hinnebusch, J. (1996) The nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid of Borrelia burgdorferi reveals similarities to those of circular plasmids of other prokaryotes. J. Bacteriol. 178:6635-6639.

112. Bunikis, J., Noppa, L., Östeberg, L., Barbour, A.G., and Bergström, S. (1996) Surface exposure and species specificity of the immunoreactive domain of a 66-kDa protein (P66) of Lyme disease Borrelia. Infect. Immun. 64:5111-5116.

113. Luke, C.J., Carner, K., Liang, X., and Barbour, A.G. (1997) An OspA-based DNA vaccine protects mice against infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Infect. Dis. 175:91-97.

114. Pennington, P.M., Allred, C.D., West, C.S., Alvarez, R., and Barbour, A.G. (1997) Arthritis severity and spirochete burden are determined by serotype in the Borrelia turicatae-mouse model of Lyme disease. Infect. Immun. 65:285-292.

115. Luke, C.J., Huebner, R.C., Kasmiersky, V., and Barbour, A.G. (1997) Oral delivery of purified lipoprotein OspA protects mice from systemic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccine 15:739-746.

116. Zhang, J-R, Hardham, J.M., Barbour, A.G., and Norris, S.J. (1997) Antigenic variation in Lyme disease borreliae by promiscuous recombination of VMP-like sequence cassettes. Cell 89:275-285.

117. Cadavid, D., Pennington, P., Kerentseva, T., Bergström, S., and Barbour, A.G. (1997) Immunologic and genetic characterization of VmpA of a neurotropic strain of Borrelia turicatae. Infect. Immun. 65:3352-3360.

118. Sohaskey, C.D. and Barbour, A.G. (1997) Analysis of promoters in Borrelia burgdorferi with a transiently expressed reporter gene. J. Bacteriol., 179:6837-6842.

119. Wang, H., Paesen, G.C., Nuttall, P.A., and Barbour, A.G. (1998) Male ticks and female feeding. Nature 391:753-754.

120. Hinnebusch, B.J., Barbour, A.G., Restrepo, B.I., and Schwan, T.G. (1998) Population structure of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii as indicated by polymorphism of two multigene families that encode immunogenic outer surface proteins. Infect. Immun. 66: 432-440.

121. Bunikis, J, Luke, C.J., Bunikiene, E., Bergström, S., and Barbour, A.G. (1998) A surface exposed region of a novel integral membrane protein (P66) of Borrelia burgdorferi is variable in size and sequence. J. Bacteriol. 180:1618-1623.

122. Barbour, A.G. (1998) Fall and rise of Lyme disease and other Ixodes tick-borne infections in North America and Europe. Br. Med. Bull. 54:645-656.

123. Cadavid, D. and Barbour, A.G. (1998) Neuroborreliosis during relapsing fever: clinical manifestations, pathology, and treatment of infections in humans and experimental animals. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:151-164.

124. Sohaskey, C. and Barbour, A.G. (1999) Serum esterases counteract the effect of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:655-660.

125. Bunikis, J. and Barbour, A.G. (1999) Access of antibody or trypsin to an integral outer membrane protein (P66) of Borrelia burgdorferi is hindered in cells expressing Osp lipoproteins. Infect. Immun. 67: 2874-2883.

126. Sohaskey, C., Zückert, W., and Barbour, A.G. (1999) The extended promoters for two outer membrane lipoprotein genes of Borrelia spp. uniquely include a T-rich region. Mol. Microbiol. 33:41-51.

127. Zückert, W., Meyer, J., and Barbour, A.G. (1999) Comparative analysis and immunological characterization of the Borrelia spp. Bdr protein family. Infect. Immun. 67:3257-3266.

128. Pennington, P.M., Cadavid, D., and Barbour, A.G. (1999). Characterization of VspB of Borrelia turicatae: a major outer membrane protein expressed in blood and tissues of mice. Infect. Immun. 67: 4637-4645.

129. Dever, L.L., Torigian, C.V., and Barbour, A.G. (1999) In vitro activities of the everinomicin SCH 27899 and other new antimicrobial agents against Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:1773-1775.

130. Pennington, P.M., Cadavid, D., Bunikis, J. Norris, S.J., and Barbour, A.G. (1999) Extensive interplasmidic duplications change the virulence phenotype of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia turicatae. Mol. Micrbiol. 34:1120-1132.

131. Sohaskey, C.D. and Barbour, A.G. (2000) Spirochaeta aurantia has diacetyl chloramphenicol esterase activity. J. Bacteriol. 182:1930-1934.

132. Magoun, L., Zückert, W.R., Robbins, D., Parveen, N., Alugupalli, K.R., Schwan, T.G., Barbour, A.G., and Leong, J.M. (2000) Variable small protein (Vsp)-dependent and Vsp-independent pathways for glycosaminoglycan recognition by relapsing fever spirochaetes. Mol. Microbiol. 36:886-897.

133. Zückert, W.R. and Barbour, A.G. (2000) Stability of Borrelia burgdorferi bdr loci in vitro and in vivo. Infect. Immun. 68:1727-1730.

134. Luke, C.J., Marshall, M.A., Zahradnik, J.M., Bybel, M., Menefee, B.E., and Barbour, A.G. (2000) Growth-inhibiting antibody responses of humans vaccinated with recombinant OspA and/or infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Inf. Dis. 181:1062-1068.

135. Barbour, A. G., C. J. Carter, and C. D. Sohaskey. (2000) Surface protein variation by expression site switching in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Infect. Immun. 68:7114-7121.

136. Barbour, A.G. and Restrepo, B.I. (2000) Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens: a common strategy. Emerging Inf Dis 6:449-457

137. Jasinskas, A., Jaworski, D.C., and Barbour, A.G. (2001) Amblyomma americanum: specific uptake of immunoglobulins into tick hemolymph during feeding. Exp. Parasitol. 96:313-221.

138. Barbour, A. G., and V. Bundoc. (2001) In vitro and in vivo neutralization of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii with serotype-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. Infect. Immun. 69:1009-1015.

139. Zückert, W.R., Kerentseva, T.A., Lawson, C.L., and Barbour, A.G. (2001) Structural conservation within the variable Vsp-OspC lipoprotein family. J. Biol. Chem. 276:457-463.

140. Bunikis, J., Mirian, H., Bunikiene, E., and Barbour, A.G. (2001) Non-heritable change of a spirochete’s phenotype by decoration of the cell surface with exogenous lipoproteins. Mol. Microbiol. 40:387-396.

141. Cadavid, D., Pachner, A.R., Estanislao, L., Patalapati, R., and Barbour, A.G. (2001) Isogenic serotypes of Borrelia turicatae show different localization in the brain and skin of mice. Infect. Immun. 69:3389-3397.

142. Tsao, J., Barbour, A.G., Luke, C.J., Fikrig, E., and Fish, D. (2001) OspA immunization decreases transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes from infected Peromyscus leucopus mice to larval Ixodes scapularis ticks. Vector-borne Zoonotic Dis. 1:65-74.

143. Jaworski, D.C., Jasinskas, A., Metz, C.N., Bucala, R., and Barbour, A.G. (2001) Identification and characterization of a homologue of the proinflammatory cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the tick, Amblyomma americanum. Insect Mol. Biol. 10:323-331.

144. Rich, S.M., Sawyer, S.M., and Barbour, A.G. (2001) Antigen polymorphism in Borrelia hermsii, a clonal pathogenic bacterium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:15038-15043.

145. Thomas, N.J., Bunikis, J., Barbour, A.G., and Wolcott, M.J. (2002) Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. in a Northern Spotted owl. J. Wildlife Dis 38:187-93.

146. Ornstein, K., Berglund, J., Bergstrom, S., Norrby, R., and Barbour, A.G. (2002) Three major Lyme Borrelia genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. garinii) identified by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neuroborreliosis in Sweden. Scand. J. Inf. Dis. 34:341-346.

147. Pal, S., Luke, C.J., Barbour, A.G., Peterson, E.M., and de la Maza, L.M. (2003) Immunization with the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein, using the outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi as an adjuvant, can induce protection against a chlamydial genital challenge. Vaccine. 21:1455-1465.

148. Ojaimi, C., Brooks, C., Casjens, S., Rosa, P., Elias, A., Barbour, A., Jasinskas, A., Benach, J., Katona, L., Radolf, J., Caimano, M., Skare, J., Swingle, K., Akins, D., and Schwartz, I. (2003) Profiling of temperature-induced changes in Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression by using whole genome arrays. Infect Immun 71: 1689-1705.

149. Zhong, J. and Barbour, A.G. (2004) Cross-species hybridization of a Borrelia burgdorferi DNA array reveals infection- and culture-associated genes of the unsequenced genome of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. Mol. Microbiol. 51:729-748.

150. Bunikis, J., Tsao, J. Luke, C.J., Luna, M.G., Fish, D., and Barbour, A.G. (2004) Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area highly endemic for Lyme borreliosis. J. Infect. Dis. 189:1515-1523.

151. Zückert, W.R., Lloyd, J.E., Stewart, P.E., Rosa, P.A., and Barbour, A.G. (2004) Cross-species display of functional spirochetal lipoproteins by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect. Immun. 72:1463-1469.

152. Putteet-Driver, A., Zhong, J., and Barbour, A.G. (2004) Transgenicexpression of RecA of the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii in Escherichia coli reveals differences in DNA repair and recombination phenotypes. J. Bacteriol. 186:2266-2274.

153. Bunikis, J., Tsao, J., Garpmo, U., Berglund, J., Fish, D., and Barbour, A.G. (2004). Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borreliaburgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe. Microbiology. 150:1741-1755.

154. Bunikis, J., Garpmo, U., Tsao, J., Berglund, J., Fish, D., and Barbour, A.G. (2004) Strain typing of the relapsing fever group of Borrelia species. Emerging Inf. Dis. 10:1661-1664.

155. Tsao, J., Wootton, J.T., Bunikis, J., Luna, M.G., Fish, D., and Barbour, A.G. (2004) An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:18158-64.

156. Jasinskas, A. and Barbour, A.G. (2005) The Fc fragment mediates the uptake of immunoglobulin G from the midgut to hemolymph in the ixodid tick Amblyomma americanum. J. Med. Entomol. 42:359-366

157. Becker, M., Bunikis, J., Lade, B.D., Dunn, J.J., Barbour, A.G., and Lawson, C.L. (2005) Structural investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi OspB, a bactericidal Fab target. J. Biol. Chem. 280:17363-17370.

158. Bunikis, J., and Barbour, A.G. (2005) Third Borrelia species in white-footed mice. Emerging Inf. Dis. 11:1150-51.

159. Barbour, A.G., Putteet-Driver, A.D., and Bunikis, J. (2005) Horizontally acquired genes for purine salvage in Borrelia spp. causing relapsing fever. Infect. Immun. 73:6165-6168.

160. Bunikis, J. and Barbour, A.G. (2005) Ticks have R2 retrotransposons but not the consensus transposon target site of other arthropods. Insect Mol Biol. 14:465-74.

161. Zhong, J., Skouloubris, S., Dai, Q., Myllykallio, H., and Barbour, A.G. (2006) Function and evolution of plasmid-borne genes for pyrimidine biosynthesis in Borrelia spp. J. Bacteriol. 188:909-918.

162. Frank, S.A., and Barbour, A.G. (2006) Within-host dynamics of antigenic variation. Infect. Genet. Evol. 6:141-146.

163. Ornstein, K. and Barbour, A.G. (2006) A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay of Borrelia burgdorferi 16S rRNA for highly sensitive quantification of pathogen load in a vector. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 6:103-112.

164. Lawson, C.L., Yung, B.H., Barbour, A.G., and Zückert, W.R. (2006) Crystal structure of neurotropism-associated variable surface protein 1 (Vsp1) of Borrelia turicatae. J. Bacteriol. 188:4522-4530.

165. Comstedt, P., Bergström, S., Olsen, B., Garpmo, U., Marajavaara, L., Mejlon, H., Barbour, A.G., and Bunikis, J. (2006) Migratory passerine birds as reservoirs of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Emerging Inf. Dis. 12:1087-1095.

166. Dai, Q., Restrepo. B.I., Porcella, S.F., Raffel, S.J., Schwan, T.G., and Barbour, A.G. (2006) Antigenic variation by Borrelia hermsii occurs through recombination between extragenic repetitive elements on linear plasmids. Mol. Microbiol 60:1329-1343.

167. Tourand, Y., Bankhead, T., Wilson, S.L., Putteet-Driver, A.D., Barbour, A.G., Byram, R., Rosa, P.A., and Chaconas, G. (2006) Differential telomere processing by Borrelia telomere resolvases in vitro but not in vivo. J Bacteriol 188: 7378-86

168. Barbour, A.G., Dai, Q., Restrepo, B.I., Stoenner, H.G., and Frank, S.A. (2006) Pathogen escape from host immunity by a genome program for antigenic variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 18290-95.

169. Jasinskas, A., Zhong, J., and Barbour, A.G. (2007) Highly prevalent Coxiella sp. bacterium in the tick vector Amblyomma americanum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 73:334-6.

170. Zhong, J., Jasinskas, A., and Barbour, A.G. (2007) Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness. PLoS ONE 2:e405 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000405).

171. Barbour, A.G., Jasinskas, A., Kayala, M.A., Davies, D.H., Steere, A.C., Baldi, P., and Felgner, P.L. (2008) A genome-wide proteome array reveals a limited set of immunogens in natural infections of humans and white-footed mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun 76:3374-89.

172. Wickramasekara, S., Bunikis, J., Wysocki, and Barbour, A.G. (2008) Identification of residual blood proteins in ticks by mass spectrometry proteomics. Emerging Infect Dis 14:1273-75.

173. Gatewood, A.G., Liebman, K.A., Vourc’h, G., Bunikis, J., Hamer, S.A., Cortinas, R, Melton, F., Cislo, P., Kitron, U., Tsao, J.I., Barbour, A.G., Fish, D., Diuk-Wasser, M.A. (2009) Climate and tick seasonality are predictors of Borrelia burgdorferi genotype distribution. Appl Environ Microbiol. 75:2476-83.

174. Gatewood Hoen, A., Margos, G., Bent, S.J., Diuk-Wasser, M.A., Barbour, A.G., Kurtenbach, K., and Fish, D. (2009) Phylogeography of Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States reflects multiple independent Lyme disease emergence events. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:15013-8.

175. Barbour, A.G., Bunikis, J., Travinsky, B., Gatewood Hoen, A., Diuk-Wasser, M., Fish, D., and Tsao, J.I. (2009) Niche partitioning of Borreliaburgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same reservoir host and arthropod vector. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81:1120-1131.

176. Girard, Y.A., Travinsky, B., Schotthoefer, A., Federova, N., Eisen, R.J., Eisen, L., Barbour, A.G., and Lane, R.S. (2009) Population structure of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in northern California. Appl Environ Microbiol75:7243-52.

177. Diuk-Wasser, M.A., Vourc’h, G., Cislo, P., Gatewood Hoen, A., Melton, F., Hamer, S.A., Rowland, M., Cortinas, R., Hickling, G., Tsao, J.I., Barbour, A.G., Kitron, U., Piesman, J.F., and Fish D. (2010) Field and climate based model for predicting the density of host-seeking nymphal Ixodes scapularis, an important vector of tick-borne disease agents in the eastern United States. Global Ecol Biogeograph 19:504-514.

178. Travinsky, B., Bunikis, J., and Barbour, A.G. (2010) Geographic differences in genetic locus linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi. Emerg Infect Dis. 16:1147-50.

179. Barbour, A.G. and Travinsky, B. (2010) Evolution and distribution of the ospC gene, a transferable serotype determinant of Borrelia burgdorferi. MBio. 1(4). doi:10.1128/mBio.00153-10.

180. Brinkerhoff, R.J., Bent, S.J., Folsom-O’Keefe, C.M., Tsao, K., Gatewood Hoen, A., Barbour, A.G., and Diuk-Wasser, M.A. (2010) Genotypic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in Ixodes scapularis larvae collected from North American songbirds. Appl Environ Microbiol 76: 15013-18. PMC3008240

181. Marcsisin, R.A., Campeau, S.A., Lopez, J.E., and Barbour, A.G. (2012) AlpA, an arthropod-associated outer membrane protein of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever. Infect. Immun. 80:1881-90. PMC3347450

182. Pepin, K.M., Eisen, R.J., Mead, P.S., Piesman, J., Fish, D., Hoen, A.G., Barbour, A.G., Hamer, S., and Diuk-Wasser, M.A. (2012) Geographic variation in the relationship between human Lyme disease incidence and the density of infected host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs in the Eastern US. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 86:1062-1071.

183. Laskay, U.A., Kaleta, E.J., Vilcins, I-M.E, Telford III, S.R., Barbour, A.G., and Wysocki, V.H. (2012) Development of a host blood meal database: de novo sequencing of hemoglobin from nine small mammals using mass spectrometry. Biol. Chem. 393:195-201.

184. Baum, E., Hue, F., and Barbour, A.G. (2012) Experimental infections of Peromyscus leucopus with diverse strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, a Lyme disease agent. MBio 3(6): e00434-12. PMC3517863

185. Baum, E., Randall, A.Z., Zeller, M., and Barbour, A.G. (2013) Inferring epitopes of a polymorphic antigen amidst broadly cross-reactive antibodies using protein microarrays: a study of OspC proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.PLoS ONE 8(6): e67445.

186. Campeau Miller, S., Porcella, S.F., Raffel, S.J., Schwan, T.G., and Barbour, A.G. (2013) Large linear plasmids of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever. J. Bacteriol. 195:3629-39. doi:10.1128/JB.00347-13. PMC3754566

187. Barbour, A.G., Hirsch, C.M., Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, A., Meinardi, S., Lewis, E.R.G., Shojaee Estabragh, A., and Blake, D.R. (2013). Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69802. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069802

188. Krause, P.J., Narasimhan, S., Wormser, G.P., Rollend, L., Fikrig, E., Lepore, T., Barbour, A.G., and Fish, D. (2013) Human Borrelia miyamotoi infection in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 368:291-293. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1215469.

189. Hue, F., Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, A., and Barbour, A.G. (2013) Chromosome sequence of Borrelia miyamotoi, an uncultivable tick-borne agent of human infection. GenomeA. 1(5):e00713-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00713-13.

190. Laskay, U.A., Breci, L., Vilcins, I-M.E., Dietrich, G., Barbour, A.G., Piesman, J., and Wysocki, V.H. (2013) Survival of host blood proteins in Ixodes scapularis ticks: a time course study. J. Med. Entomol., 50:1282-1290.

191. Barbour AG, Campeau Miller S. (2014) Genome sequence of Borrelia parkeri, an agent of enzootic relapsing fever in western North America. GenomeA. 2(1):e00018-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00018-14.

192. Barbour, AG. (2014) Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species that is transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Infect. Genet. Evol. 27:551-558. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.04.022.

193. Lewis, E.R.G., Marcsisin, R.A., Campeau Miller, S.A., Hue, F., Phillips, A., AuCoin, D.P., and Barbour, A.G. (2014). A fibronectin-binding protein of Borrelia hermsii expressed in the blood of mice with relapsing fever. Infect. Immun.82: 2520-2531. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01582-14

194. Baum, E., Grosenbaugh, D.A, and Barbour, A.G. (2014) Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally-infected beagle dogs. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 21:836-846. Available on-line: doi: 10.1128/CVI.00018-14

195. Krause, P.J., Narasimhan, S., Wormser, G.P., Barbour, A.G., Platonov, A.E., Brancato, J., Lepore, T., Dardick, Mamula, M., Rollend, L., Steeves, T.K., Diuk-Wasser, M., Usmani-Brown, S., Williamson, P., Sarksyan, D.S., Fikrig, E., and Fish, D. (2014) Seroreactivity and seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato infection in the northeastern United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:1183-1190. doi: 10.3201/eid2007.131587. PMC4073859

196. Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, A., Hirsch, C.M., Shojaee Estabragh, A., Meinardi, S., Blake, D.R., and Barbour, A.G. (2014) Elevated carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide ratio in the exhaled breath of mice treated with a single dose of lipopolysaccharide. Open Forum Infect. Dis. 1 (2): first published online August 22, 2014 doi:10.1093/ofid/ofu085

197. Brummitt, S.I., Barbour, A.G., Hue, F., and Kjemtrup, A.M. (2014) Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from a case of autochthonous Lyme arthritis in California. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:2168-70. doi: 10.3201/eid2012.140655; PMC4257802Cook, V., and Barbour, A.G. (2015) Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens. Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 6:549-558. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.04.009

198. Cook, V., and Barbour, A.G. (2015) Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens. Ticks Tick-borne Dis. 6:549-558. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.04.009

199. Barbour, A.G., Bunikis, J., Fish, D., and Hanincova, K. (2015) Association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing Borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern United States. Parasit. Vectors May 30;8:299 doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0903-5; PMC4459683

200. Krause, P.J., Fish, D., Narasimhan, S., and Barbour, A.G. (2015). Borrelia miyamotoi infection in nature and in humans. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 21:631-639doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.02.006. PMC4470780

202. Song, Y., Laskay, Ü.A., Vilcins, I.E., Barbour, A.G., and Wysocki, V.H. (2015) Top-Down-Assisted Bottom-Up method for homologous protein sequencing: hemoglobin from 33 bird species. J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom. Jun 26. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1007/s13361-015-1185-z

Chapters and invited commentaries:

1. Barbour, A.G., and Spruance, S.L. (1981) Colorado tick fever. In Saimy, A.H., Smith, L.H., and Wyngaarden, J.B. (Eds.) International Textbook of Medicine; Braude, A.I. (Ed.) Vol. II, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, pp. 1852-1856.

2. Barbour, A.G. (1981) Penicllin-binding proteins of bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Newsletter 3:1-3.

3. Barbour, A.G., and Spruance, S.L. (1983) Colorado tick fever. In Hoeprich, P.D. (Ed.) Infectious Diseases, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Co., pp. 1083-1088.

4. Barbour, A.G., and Stoenner, H.G. (1985) Antigenic variation of Borrelia hermsii. In Herskowitz, I., and Simon, M. (Eds.) Genome Rearrangement. UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series, Vol. 20, New York, Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 123-135.

5. Barbour, A.G. (1985) Clonal polymorphism of surface antigens in a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. In Jackson, G.G. (Ed.) Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infection. Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, pp. 235-245.

6. Barbour, A.G. (1985) Lyme disease. Clin. Microbiol. Newsletter. 7:39-46.

7. Barbour, A.G., and Howe, T.R. (1986) Major surface proteins of the Lyme disease Borrelia. In Schlesinger, D. (Ed.) Microbiology 1986. Washington, D.C., American Society for Microbiology.

8. Barbour, A.G. Lyme Borreliosis. (1989) In Hoeprich, P.D. (Ed.) Infectious Diseases, 4th Edition, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippinott Co.

9. Barbour, A.G. Colorado Tick Fever. (1989) In Hoeprich, P.D. (Ed.) Infectious Diseases, 4th Edition, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippinott Co.

10. Barbour, A.G. (1987) Lyme Borreliosis. A.S.C.P. Check Sample. Microbiology No. MB-87-5 (MB-166), American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Vol. 30, No. 5.

11. Barbour, A.G. (1989) Antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia species: genetic aspects. In D.E. Berg and M.M. Howe. Mobile DNA, Washington, D.C., American Society for Microbiology, pp. 783-790.

12. Barbour, A.G. (1989) The diagnosis of Lyme disease: rewards and perils. Ann. Int. Med. 110:501-502.

13. Barbour, A.G. (1990) Antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia species. The Bacteria Vol. XI. Chapter 8. pp. 155-176.

14. Barbour, A.G. (1991) Molecular biology of antigenic variation in Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever: a comparative analysis. Scand J Infect Dis – Suppl. 77:88-93

15. Barbour, A.G. (1992) Antigenic variation in human borrelial diseases. In D.H. Walker. Global Infectious Diseases, Vienna, Springer-Verlag, pp. 205-218.

16. Barbour, A.G. (1992) Biological and social determinants of the Lyme disease problem. Infect. Agents Dis. 1:50-61.

17. Bergström, S., Garon, C.F., Barbour, A.G., and MacDougall, J. (1994) Extrachromosomal elements of spirochetes. Res. Microbiol. 143:623-8.

18. Barbour, A.G. and Korenberg, E.I. (1991) The agents of Lyme disease. Problems in Infectious Diseases. Medicina, Moscow, Russia, pg. 181-187 [In Russian]

19. Erdile, L.F., Westrack, G.J., Warakomski, D.J., Brandt, M.-A., Mays, J.P., Sadziene, A., and Barbour, A.G. (1993) Protective immunity to Lyme disease induced by OspA lipoprotein: the lipid moiety is critical in the immune response. Vaccines 93. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.

20. Barbour, A.G. (1994) Lyme Disease. In Hoeprich, P.D., Jordan, M.C., and Ronald, A.R. (Ed.) Infectious Diseases: A Treatise in Infectious Processes, 5th Edition, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippinott Co.

21. Barbour, A.G. (1996) Lyme disease: from agent isolation to vaccine trials. In Koprowski, H. and Oldstone, M. Microbe Hunters: Then and Now. Medi-Ed Press, Bloomington, IL. pp. 331-337.

22. Carner, K., Liang, X., Hobart, P., Luke C.J. & A.G. Barbour. (1997) A DNA-based vaccine against Lyme disease. In F. Brown, D. Burton, P. Doherty, J. Mekalanos, and E. Norrby (Ed.) Vaccines 97. Molecular Approaches to the Control of Infectious Diseases, New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. pp. 119-123.

23. Barbour, A.G. (1997) Let Scientists Do Their Job. New York Times, July 5, 1997, Op-Ed page invited editorial.

24. Barbour, A.G. and Zückert, W.R. (1997) New tricks of tick-borne pathogen. Nature 390:553-555.

25. Barbour, A.G. (1998) Expert advice and patient expectations: laboratory testing and antibiotics for Lyme disease. JAMA 279:239-240.

26. Barbour, A.G. (1998) Spirochetes come in from the cold. Nature Medicine 4:890-891.

27. Barbour, A.G. (1999) Relapsing fever and other Borrelia infections. In R.L. Guerrant, D.H. Walker, and P.F. Weller. Tropical Infectious Diseases. 1st edition. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. pp. 535-545.

28. Barbour, A.G. (1999) Borrelia infections: relapsing fever and Lyme disease. In M.W. Cunningham and R. Fujinami. Effects of Microbes on the Immune System. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 57-70.

29. Barbour, A.G., Johnson, B., Menefee, B.E., Persing, D.H., Schell, R.F., Shively, R.G., and Weinstein, A. (2001) Western Blot Assay for Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi; Approved Guideline. M34-A. Volume 20, Number 20. Wayne, PA, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

30. Barbour, A.G. (2001) Borrelia: a diverse and ubiquitous genus of tick-borne pathogens. In W.M. Scheld, W.A. Craig, and J.M. Hughes. Emerging Infections 5. Washington, D.C., American Society of Microbiology Press. pp. 153-174.

31. Barbour, A.G. (2002) Antigenic variation of relapsing fever Borrelia and other pathogenic bacteria. In N.L. Craig, R. Craigie, M. Gellert, and A. Lambowitz. Mobile DNA II. Washington, D.C., American Society for Microbiology. pp. 972-994.

32. Bunikis, J, and Barbour, A.G. (2002) Laboratory testing for suspected Lyme disease. Medical Clinics North America 86:311-340.

33. Barbour, A.G. (2003) Antigenic variation in Borrelia: relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis. In A. Craig and A. Scherf. Antigenic Variation. London, Academic Press. pp. 319-356.

34. Barbour, A.G. (2004) Specificity of Borrelia-tick relationships. In S.H. Gillespie, G.L. Smith, and A. Osbourne. SGM Symposium 63: Microbe-Vector Interactions in Vector-Borne Diseases. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. pp. 75-90.

35. Barbour, A.G. (2006) Relapsing fever. In J. Goodman, D. Dennis, and D. Sonenshine. Tick-borne Diseases of Humans. Washington, D.C., American Society for Microbiology Press. pp. 268-291.

36. Barbour, A.G. (2006) Relapsing fever and other Borrelia infections. In R.L. Guerrant, D.H. Walker, and P.F. Weller. Tropical Infectious Diseases. 2nd edition. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. pp. 489-510.

37. Barbour, A.G. and Guo, B.P. (2009) Pathogenesis of relapsing fever. In S. Samuels and J. Radolf. Borrelia: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Norwich, U.K., Horizon Scientific Press.

38. Barbour, A.G. (2011) Relapsing fever and other Borrelia infections. In R.L. Guerrant, D.H. Walker, and P.F. Weller. Tropical Infectious Diseases. 3nd edition. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co.

39. Barbour, A. (2012) Remains of infection. J. Clin. Invest. 122:2344-6.

40. Barbour, A.G. (2014) Relapsing fever. Chapter 209. In D.L.Kasper, S.L. Hauser, D.L. Longo, J.L. Jameson, J. Loscalzo. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th edition. McGraw Hill.

41. Krause, P.J., and Barbour, A.G. (2015) Borrelia miyamotoi: the newest infection brought to us by deer ticks. Ann. Int. Med. Published online 9 June 2015 doi:10.7326/M15-1219